Fraudulent Transfers, Alter Ego, Nominee and Successor Liability

I.R.C. Section 6321

The United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Arizona explores the extent to which the federal tax lien remains attached to assets transferred to others through alleged fraudulent transfers in Bullseye Holdings, LLC v. Internal Revenue Service, Case Number 4:16-ap-00449-BMW dated October 15, 2018. This action was essentially one for Declaratory relief filed by Bullseye Holdings, LLC asking the Court to determine that assets owned by the related entity Bullseye Feeders, LLC, were not encumbered by the federal tax lien. The entities at issue are owned by a variety of individuals in the same immediate family. At the time of trial, those members did not exactly know who held precise interests in the various LLC’s. The United States may impose a lien on property or rights to property belonging to a taxpayer in order to satisfy a taxpayer’s tax deficiency. Property that is fraudulently transferred remains subject to the federal tax lien against it. Additionally, where property is placed in the name of another as the taxpayer’s alter ego, nominee, or successor, federal tax liens remain attached to the property. The Court ruled that the IRS failed to prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the property was fraudulently transferred. The court went through numerous factors relating to required provisions of substantiating fraudulent transfers. It seemed the IRS simply did not do their job in Court. They did a better job relating to the Alter Ego Theory – possibly because it is easier to prove. The IRS had to prove that there was a unity of control and observing the corporate form would sanction fraud or promote injustice. Some of the factors causing the alter ego theory to be upheld were: 1) close family membership of all entities, 2) One person essentially in charge of both, 3) neither entity held formal meetings, 4) no corporate records, 5) one entity did not have a bank account, 6) no payments made on obligations from one entity to the other, 7) no consideration paid on the transfer of a few promissory notes, 8) operating agreements stated the purpose was exactly the same, 9) at the time of the transfer, one entity could not pay its debts as they become due and the property transferred was the only remaining asset of the entity. Unity of control was clearly met. As for whether or not justice requires recognizing substance over corporate form, the Court found that to invalidate the IRS lien against the Property would promote injustice. Ultimately, the lien stood against the property.